“Say What?”

If we were to ask our children what “Bleed” means – their definition may include a bandaid.  In the creative world, however, there is another definition, which may apply to almost any of the projects included in our templates.  Other terms as well, may share common ancestry with words we thought we understood… so this page is where you can come for what “2 Have and 2 Fold ites” most probably mean by that funny word we just used.  And yes, we love type and words, so we may use a few of them!


Bleed:  An area of an image that extends beyond the edge of the piece so that once it is cut out, the image extends completely to the edge.

Adobe Acrobat – Software created by Adobe used to converting documents to an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) file. This format is used as an industry standard, so that almost anyone can open your document across a broad range of hardware and software using the downloadable, free software Adobe Acrobat Reader, and it should look exactly as you intended.  To download software which allow you to create PDF files for free Click here.

Adobe Type 1 font – see postscript font.

attachment – When referring to e-mail, an electronic file placed within an e-mail for the purpose of sending through the Internet.

banding – When the changes from screen percentage to screen percentage in a gradient can be seen, instead of a solid blending from dark to light or from color to color.

bind – To attach together sheets or signatures with wire, thread, glue, or by other means.

bindery – Where materials go for assembly. Cutting, folding, binding and boxing are some of the activities performed in bindery.

bleed – An area of image which prints beyond the cut edge of the page, for the purpose of allowing the image to extend to the edge of the piece after being cut or trimmed.

debossing – An image pressed into your paper leaving a lowered portion of the image.  If the lowered section of the image has no foil or color on it – this is referred to as a blind deboss.

embossing – An image pressed into your paper, creating a raised area.

color correction – Improving color separations by altering either the electronic file or the amount of color burned onto a plate or the amount of ink applied to a press sheet.
color bar
– A line of colored blocks in a row or a single color placed at the tail of a press sheet and used to measure the density of color across the width of a press sheet.

color matching system – A system of formulated ink colors used for communicating color.

color separations – The process of preparing artwork, photographs, transparencies, or computer-generated art for printing by separating color into the four primary printing colors: cyan, magenta, yellow and black.

comb bind – To plastic comb bind by inserting the comb into punched holes.

computer-to-plate – Also known as CTP. The process by which plates are created using information sent to a direct-to-plate device from a computer, bypassing film. Click here to find out why this process is better.

crash number – Numbering paper by pressing an image on the first sheet which is transferred to all parts of the printed set.

crop – To cut off parts of a picture or image.

crop marks – Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.

cyan – One of four standard process colors. The icy blue color.

die – Metal rule or imaged block used to cut or place an image on paper in the finishing process.

die cutting – The process of using a die to cure images in or out of paper.

digital printing – Printing performed on a digital copier, such as a laser color copier or Docutech.

digital proof – A proof delivered electronically, as opposed to physically. The most typical example is a .pdf proof.

dot gain or spread – A term used to explain the difference in size between the dot on film versus the dot on paper.

duotone – A halftone picture made up of two printed colors.

embossing – Pressing an image into paper so that it creates a raised area.

emulsion – Light-sensitive coating found on printing plates and film.

flood – To cover a printed page with ink, varnish or plastic coating completely.

foil – A metallic or pigmented coating on plastic sheets or rolls used in foil stamping and foil embossing/debossing.

foil emboss/deboss – Foil stamping and embossing/debossing an image on paper with a die.

foil stamping – Using a die to place a metallic or pigmented image on paper.

4-color process – See process color.

[8 panel french fold]
French Fold
(eight panels)

french fold – Two folds at right angles to each other.

FTP – An acronym meaning File Transfer Protocol. The process of sending or receiving files electronically through the Internet. Not to be confused with attaching an attachment to an e-mail, FTP is performed using an FTP client (software) or a Web page with FTP capabilities.

This fully justified type runs from one
edge to the other.

full justification – Type that is justified to the right and left margins, creating no variation between line lengths on either end; except the last line, which is left justified.

ghosting – A faint printed image that appears on a printed sheet where it was not intended. More often than not, this problem is a function of graphical design. It is hard to tell when or where ghosting will occur. Sometimes, you can see the problem developing immediately after printing the sheet, other times the problem occurs while drying. However the problem occurs, it is costly to fix, if it can be fixed. Occasionally, it can be eliminated by changing the color sequence, the inks, the paper, changing to a press with a drier, printing the problem area in a separate pass through the press, or changing the racking (reducing the number of sheets on the drying racks).

gloss – A shiny look, reflecting light.

gradient – A transition of color, creating a blended change between screen percentages of a single color or between two different colors.

grain – The direction in which the paper fiber lie.

gripper – A clamp-like device which grabs the front of the press sheet and pulls it through the press. Also refers to the edge of the press sheet which leaves the press first.

halftone – Converting a continuous tone to dots for printing. Click here for an illustration.

hard copy – The output of a computer printer, or typed text sent for typesetting.

hickey – Reoccurring, unplanned spots that appear in the printed image from dust, lint or dried ink.

image area – Portion of paper on which ink can appear.

imposition – Positioning printed pages so they will fold in the proper order.

impression – Putting an image on paper.

imprint – Adding copy to a previously printed page.

indicia – Postal information placed on a printed product.

justification – The act of specifying how a block of type will look on a page. See left justified, right justified, center justified, and full justification.

kiss die cut – To cut the top layer of a pressure-sensitive sheet and not the backing. Sticker sheets use this technique.

knock out – To mask out any area of ink.

Left-justified type leaves clean lines
on the left side, but leaves ragged
edges on the right side.

left justified – Type that is justified to the left margin and the line lengths vary on the right.

magenta – One of the basic colors in process color. The pink color.

makeready – All the activities required to prepare a press for printing.

mask – Blocking light from reaching parts of a printing plate.

matchprint – The process of using gels or naps to create a color proof which accurately represents how a job will look when printed on press when printed in 4-color process. There are some spot color gels, but the selection is extremely limited and may not be a true representation. Universal does not utilize this type of proof; instead, a color, full-size, high-resolution proof is output for our clients. See ORIS.

matte – A dull look, reflecting light poorly.

OCR – (Optical Character Recognition) The machine recognition of printed characters. OCR systems can recognize many different OCR fonts, as well as typewriter and computer-printed characters. Some advanced OCR systems can also recognize hand writing.

offset printing – Printing performed on a traditional printer, where plates mounted onto rollers are used to transfer ink onto paper.

offsetting – Using an intermediate surface used to transfer ink. Also, an unpleasant happening when the images of freshly printed sheets transfer images to each other.

opacity – The amount of show-through on a printed sheet. The more opacity—or the thicker the paper—the less show-through.

OpenType™ font – OpenType is a new cross-platform font file format developed jointly by Adobe and Microsoft. The two main benefits of the OpenType format are its cross-platform compatibility (the same font file works on Macintosh and Windows computers), and its ability to support widely expanded character sets and layout features, which provide richer linguistic support and advanced typographic control. (Taken from www.adobe.com.) On a Windows machine, OpenType fonts have the extension .otf.

ORIS – 1) The proofing system Universal uses to output its contract proofs. 2) What Universal calls the press proofs output through the ORIS system.

overrun – Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity.

overs – See overrun.

page count – Total number of pages in a book, including blanks.

PDF – See Adobe Acrobat.

perfect bind – A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets to a cover, i.e. a telephone book, an Adobe software manual, or Country Living Magazine.

plate – An object, onto which an image is burned using light, which is placed onto a press for the use of printing ink onto paper.

PMS – The abbreviated name of the Pantone Color Matching System.

point – For paper, a unit of thickness equaling 1/1000 inch; for typesetting, a unit of height equaling 1/72 inch.

postscript – The computer language most recognized by printing devices.

postscript font – As opposed to TrueType and OpenType™ fonts, postscript fonts contain two files: a screen font and a printer font. When sending to your printer, please make sure to attach both files. On a Windows machine, postscript files have these extensions: .pfm and .pfb.

printer font – The file a computer uses to help the printer print a font correctly. This file is necessary for printer output. Without the printer font, a font may look correct on screen, but will print incorrectly. On a PC, printer fonts have the extension of .pfb.

process color – The process of using cyan, magenta, yellow and black to build/create any and all colors. The price of printing in process is generally equal to that of printing three spot colors.

proof – A print out or mock-up of a job.

proofing – When a job has been sent to the proofreader, to the sales representative or customer service representative, or to the client to be looked over.

pURL -an acronym for “Personal URL”. Where a standard URL is the web address for the general site, a pURL is a uniquely personalized web page or mini-site specific to one individual or group. (example: JohnSmith.uppforyou.com)

ragged left – Type that is justified to the right margin and the line lengths vary on the left. See right justified.

ragged right – Type that is justified to the left margin and the line lengths vary on the right. See left justified.

ream – Prepackage cut-size sheets of paper stock; typically 500 sheets for text/writing stock, and 250 sheets for cover stock.

register – To position print in the proper position in relation to the edge of the sheet and to other printing on the same sheet; Also refered to as registration.

register marks – Cross-hair lines or marks on film, plates and paper that guide strippers, platemakers, pressmen and bindery personnel in processing a print order from start to finish.

Right-justified type leaves clean lines
on the right side, but leaves ragged
edges on the left side.

right justified – Type that is justified to the right margin and the line lengths vary on the left.

saddle stitch – Binding a booklet or magazine with staples in the seam where it folds.

scanner – Device used to make color separations, halftones, duotones and tritones. Also a device used to scan art, pictures or drawings in desktop publishing.

score – A crease put on paper to help it fold better.

screen – See screen percentage or tints.

screen angles – Frequently, a desktop publisher’s nightmare. The angles at which halftones, duotones, tritones and color separation printing films are placed to make them look right.

screen font – The file a computer uses to display the font correctly on screen. Without this file, the font may print correctly, but will look incorrect on screen. On a PC, screen fonts have the extension of .pfm.

screen percentage – The amount of ink coverage applied. See also tints.

self cover – Using the same paper as the text for the cover.

side stitch – Binding by stapling along one side of a sheet.

signature – A sheet of printed pages which, when folded, become a part of a book or publication.

spot color – Ink which has been mixed before printing, creating a solid flood of color more easily matchable from printing to printing.

spot varnish – Varnish used to highlight a specific part of the printed sheet.

stamping – Term for foil stamping.

stock – The material to be printed.

stripper – The individual responsible for the positioning of film on a flat prior to platemaking.

stripping – The positioning of film on a flat prior to platemaking.

tail – The edge of the press sheet which leaves the press last.

tints – A shade of a single color or combined colors.

trap – An area where two colors overlap minutely. Trap is used to make sure any shift in printing does not result in areas where paper is seen where there should be ink.

trim marks – Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed sheet.

trim size – The final size of one printed image after the last trim is made.

tritone – A halftone picture made up of three printed colors.

TrueType font – As opposed to a postscript font, TrueType fonts are used by both the screen and the printer to display and print the font correctly. On a Windows machine, TrueType fonts have the extension of .ttf.

UV coating – Liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. Environmentally friendly.

varnish – A clear liquid applied to printed surfaces for looks and protection.

washup – Removing printing ink from a press by washing the rollers and blanket. Certain ink colors require multiple washups to avoid ink and chemical contamination.

wire O – A bindery trade name for mechanical binding using double loops of wire through a hole.

wire-O binding – A method of wire binding books along the binding edge that will allow the book to lay flat using double loops. See wire O.

with the grain – Folding or feeding paper into the press or folder parallel to the grain of the paper.

work and tumble – Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail to print the second side using the same side guide and plate for the second side.

work and turn – Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right, using the same side guides and plate for the second side.